Write a two-page descriptive essay about biopsychosocial factors related to late and very late adulthood and its impact in their biopsychosocial development. Be sure to use APA style, include bibliographic citations and references, and submit the essay to Net Tutor for feedback. The facilitator will send written assignments to Safe Assign to check for plagiarism. The language of this activity will be evaluated using the Essay Rubric.
In late and very late adulthood, individuals experience a myriad of biopsychosocial factors that shape their development. Biopsychosocial factors refer to the biological, psychological, and social influences that interact and play a significant role in an individual’s overall well-being (Engel, 1977). This essay will explore some of the key biopsychosocial factors related to late and very late adulthood and their impact on the biopsychosocial development of individuals in this stage of life.
Firstly, let us examine the biological factors that influence late and very late adulthood. There are several biological changes that occur during this stage of life, including the process of aging. As individuals age, they may experience various physical changes such as decreased muscle mass, changes in vision and hearing, and a decrease in overall mobility (Baltes & Baltes, 1990). These biological changes can impact an individual’s physical well-being and may require adjustments in their daily activities and lifestyle.
Furthermore, the biological changes in late and very late adulthood can also have an impact on an individual’s psychological well-being. For example, many older adults may experience cognitive decline, which can affect their memory, attention, and problem-solving abilities (Salthouse, 2012). These changes in cognitive functioning can lead to feelings of frustration, anxiety, and a decrease in self-esteem (Schaie, 1994). Additionally, older adults may also face the challenge of managing chronic health conditions, such as arthritis or heart disease, which can further impact their psychological well-being (Ferrucci et al., 2008).
In addition to biological factors, psychological factors also play a significant role in the biopsychosocial development of individuals in late and very late adulthood. One important psychological factor is the concept of generativity versus stagnation, as described by Erik Erikson in his psychosocial development theory (Erikson, 1950). During this stage of life, individuals may reflect on their accomplishments, their contributions to their community, and their legacy. Those who feel a sense of generativity, that is, a sense of purpose and fulfillment, are more likely to experience positive psychological well-being. On the other hand, individuals who feel stagnant, that is, a lack of productivity and contribution, may be at a higher risk of experiencing psychological distress (McAdams & de St. Aubin, 1992).
Additionally, social factors also play a significant role in the biopsychosocial development of individuals in late and very late adulthood. Social support, including the presence of close relationships and a strong social network, has been found to be crucial during this stage of life (Berkman et al., 2000). Having a strong social support system can buffer the negative impact of stress, improve overall well-being, and promote better physical and mental health outcomes.
Moreover, retirement is another important social factor that impacts individuals in late and very late adulthood. Retirement can have both positive and negative effects on an individual’s biopsychosocial development. On one hand, retirement can provide individuals with more leisure time and opportunities for personal growth and self-discovery (Wang et al., 2012). This can lead to increased life satisfaction and overall well-being. On the other hand, retirement can also lead to a loss of identity and purpose, as individuals may no longer have their career as a central part of their life. This loss can result in feelings of boredom, loss of self-esteem, and social isolation (Clare et al., 2019).
In conclusion, late and very late adulthood is a stage of life characterized by various biopsychosocial factors that shape an individual’s development. Biological factors, such as aging and changes in physical and cognitive functioning, can impact an individual’s overall well-being. Psychological factors, such as generativity versus stagnation, can influence an individual’s sense of purpose and fulfillment. Finally, social factors, including social support and the experience of retirement, can have significant impacts on an individual’s biopsychosocial development. Understanding and addressing these biopsychosocial factors can contribute to the promotion of healthy aging and enhance the overall well-being of individuals in this stage of life.
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