Using the , identify three measures of the constructs you a…

Using the , identify three measures of the constructs you are studying for your research question 1. What is your research question? 2. Write a testablehypothesis for your research question. 3. What constructs is your research question investigating? 4. Using the Mental Measurements Yearbook, provide the following information for three measures of the constructs: Salkind, N. J. (2012). Exploring research (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Research Question:
The research question under investigation is: “What is the relationship between students’ self-esteem and their academic achievement in high school?”

Testable Hypothesis:
The hypothesized relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement can be stated as follows: “Higher levels of self-esteem are positively correlated with higher levels of academic achievement in high school students.”

Constructs Under Investigation:
The two constructs being studied in this research question are self-esteem and academic achievement. Self-esteem refers to an individual’s overall evaluation of their own worth and value. Academic achievement, on the other hand, relates to the extent to which students are successful in their educational pursuits, typically measured by grades, test scores, or other academic indicators.

Measures of the Constructs:

To identify three measures of the constructs being investigated, the Mental Measurements Yearbook can be consulted. The Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY) is a reference book that provides in-depth information about various psychological tests and measures. It includes descriptions, reviews, and ratings of the instruments, making it a valuable resource for researchers. In this case, we will use the MMY to find measures of self-esteem and academic achievement.

Measure 1: Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE)
According to the 8th edition of the Mental Measurements Yearbook (Salkind, 2012), one measure of self-esteem is the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). The RSE is a widely used self-report instrument that assesses individuals’ overall self-worth and self-acceptance. It consists of ten items that participants rate on a Likert scale, indicating their level of agreement or disagreement with each statement. The scale has been found to have good reliability and validity in measuring self-esteem across different populations, including adolescents. Researchers can use the RSE to assess the self-esteem levels of high school students in relation to their academic achievement.

Measure 2: Grade Point Average (GPA)
Another measure that can be used to assess academic achievement is Grade Point Average (GPA). GPA is a numerical representation of a student’s academic performance, typically calculated by averaging the grades received in all completed courses. The MMY does not specifically provide information on the measurement properties of GPA as it is a commonly used indicator in educational settings. However, GPA is widely accepted as a valid and reliable measure of academic achievement in the context of high school students. Researchers can collect participants’ GPA data from school records or self-reported information to examine the relationship between academic achievement and self-esteem.

Measure 3: Stanford Achievement Test (SAT)
The Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) is a standardized test that assesses students’ academic knowledge and skills in various subjects. According to the Mental Measurements Yearbook, the SAT is a widely used measure of academic achievement in educational research and assessment settings. It consists of multiple-choice questions that cover areas such as reading, mathematics, science, and social studies. The SAT provides individual and group scores that can be used to gauge students’ academic achievement levels. Researchers can administer the SAT to participants as a measure of their academic achievement and then examine its relationship with self-esteem scores obtained through other measures.

In summary, the research question investigates the relationship between students’ self-esteem and academic achievement in high school. Three measures that could be used to study these constructs are the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), Grade Point Average (GPA), and the Stanford Achievement Test (SAT). The RSE measures self-esteem through self-report, while GPA and SAT capture academic achievement through objective indicators. By utilizing these measures, researchers can explore the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement in high school students.