two of the following theoretical approaches: psychodynamic,…

two of the following theoretical approaches: psychodynamic, humanistic and existential, dispositional, or learning. a 1,400- to 1,750-word paper in which you compare and contrast the theories selected. Address the following: a reference page with a minimum of three to five peer-reviewed sources. your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Purchase the answer to view it Purchase the answer to view it Purchase the answer to view it Purchase the answer to view it

Comparing and contrasting different theoretical approaches is a crucial aspect of understanding human behavior. In this paper, we will compare and contrast two theoretical approaches: psychodynamic and humanistic-existential. These approaches provide different perspectives on the underlying causes and motivations of human behavior.

The psychodynamic approach, proposed by Sigmund Freud and expanded upon by his followers, focuses on the unconscious mind and the influence of early childhood experiences. According to this approach, human behavior is largely driven by unconscious desires and conflicts. The psychodynamic approach emphasizes the role of the unconscious mind and the importance of unconscious processes in shaping behavior. It also posits that unresolved conflicts and repressed memories can lead to psychological disturbances.

On the other hand, the humanistic-existential approach focuses on the present moment and the individual’s experience of their own existence. Humanistic psychology, pioneered by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, emphasizes the potential for self-actualization and the importance of human values and personal growth. Existential psychology, influenced by philosophers such as Jean-Paul Sartre and Martin Heidegger, emphasizes the individual’s struggle to find meaning and purpose in life, and the freedom and responsibility that comes with it.

One important distinction between these approaches is their view of human nature. The psychodynamic approach sees human nature as driven by unconscious desires and instincts, which can often be in conflict with societal norms. In contrast, the humanistic-existential approach sees human nature as inherently positive, with a potential for personal growth and self-actualization.

Another difference lies in their view of the role of determinism. The psychodynamic approach believes that behavior is determined by unconscious processes and early childhood experiences, leaving little room for free will. In contrast, the humanistic-existential approach emphasizes the importance of individual freedom and the ability to make choices.

The goals of therapy also differ between these approaches. The psychodynamic approach aims to bring unconscious conflicts and desires into awareness, through techniques such as free association and interpretation of dreams. The goal of psychodynamic therapy is to resolve these conflicts and achieve insight into one’s motivations. In contrast, humanistic-existential therapy focuses on helping individuals to develop a sense of self-acceptance, personal growth, and self-actualization. This is achieved through techniques such as active listening, empathy, and unconditional positive regard.

While both approaches have their strengths, they also have limitations. The psychodynamic approach has been criticized for its heavy reliance on interpretations and subjective interpretations by the therapist. Additionally, the focus on early childhood experiences may not adequately address the complexity of adult functioning. On the other hand, the humanistic-existential approach has been criticized for its lack of scientific rigor and its overly optimistic view of human nature. Furthermore, its emphasis on personal growth and self-actualization may not address the needs of individuals with severe psychological disturbances.

In conclusion, the psychodynamic and humanistic-existential approaches provide different perspectives on human behavior, each with its own strengths and limitations. While the psychodynamic approach emphasizes the role of unconscious desires and conflicts, the humanistic-existential approach focuses on individual growth and self-actualization. Both approaches have contributed to our understanding of human behavior and have influenced the field of psychology in significant ways.

References:

Freud, S. (2010). The interpretation of dreams. Basic Books.

Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a psychology of being. D. Van Nostrand.

Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person: A therapist’s view of psychotherapy. Houghton Mifflin.

Sartre, J. P. (2007). Being and nothingness: An essay on phenomenological ontology. Washington University Press.