the Theory Tables, your last portion should be submitted this week. the major figures that influence trait and biological theories, the key concepts that determine personality formation, and how they explain disordered personality. When providing information in the table, make sure to format it using APA guidelines, which includes having the same font size and type and using in-text citations. Also, make sure to format your references using APA guidelines. Purchase the answer to view it
Trait and biological theories of personality are two important perspectives in understanding the factors that influence personality formation and the development of disordered personality. These theories are influenced by several major figures in psychology who have contributed significant insights and concepts to the field. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the major figures that influence trait and biological theories, the key concepts that determine personality formation, and how they explain disordered personality.
Trait theory is primarily associated with the work of Gordon Allport, Hans Eysenck, and Raymond Cattell. Allport classified traits into three levels: cardinal traits, which are dominant and shape an individual’s behavior; central traits, which are the general characteristics that individuals possess; and secondary traits, which are situational and context-dependent. Eysenck proposed a hierarchical model of personality, with three dimensions: extraversion/introversion, neuroticism/stability, and psychoticism/superego. Cattell is known for his 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire, which identifies 16 underlying factors that contribute to an individual’s personality.
In biological theories, the major figures include Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and Hans Eysenck. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the role of unconscious processes and early childhood experiences in shaping personality. According to Freud, personality is composed of three components: the id, ego, and superego. Jung expanded on Freud’s ideas and proposed the concept of the collective unconscious, a shared reservoir of archetypal images and symbols that influences individuals’ behavior. Eysenck, as mentioned earlier, also contributed to biological theories with his dimensions of personality.
The key concepts in trait theory that determine personality formation are traits and their measurement. Traits are enduring patterns of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that distinguish individuals from one another. They are relatively stable over time and across situations. Measurement of traits is typically done using self-report questionnaires, observer ratings, or behavioral assessments. Some commonly used trait measures include the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R).
In biological theories, key concepts in personality formation include the role of genetics, brain structure and function, and biological factors in determining personality traits. Research suggests that genetics plays a significant role in the development of personality traits, with heritability estimates ranging from 30% to 60%. Brain structure and function, particularly in regions such as the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, have also been linked to personality traits such as impulsivity and emotional stability. Furthermore, biological factors such as hormone levels and neurotransmitter functioning have been associated with certain personality traits.
Trait and biological theories also provide explanations for disordered personality. In trait theory, the Five-Factor Model (FFM) is often used to study personality disorders. Individuals with certain personality disorders may exhibit extreme or maladaptive variations of the five traits: extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. For example, individuals with borderline personality disorder tend to score high on neuroticism and low on agreeableness and conscientiousness.
In biological theories, disordered personality is explained in terms of biological vulnerabilities and abnormalities. Research suggests that individuals with personality disorders may have neurochemical imbalances, structural brain abnormalities, or genetic predispositions that contribute to their disordered personality traits. For example, individuals with antisocial personality disorder have been found to have reduced volume in areas of the brain associated with fear, moral decision-making, and empathy.
In conclusion, trait and biological theories of personality offer valuable perspectives in understanding the factors that influence personality formation and the development of disordered personality. Major figures such as Gordon Allport, Sigmund Freud, and Hans Eysenck have contributed significant insights to these theories. Key concepts in trait theory include the measurement of traits and the Big Five traits, while biological theories focus on genetics, brain structure and function, and biological factors. Both theories provide explanations for disordered personality, with trait theory emphasizing extreme variations of the Five-Factor Model and biological theories highlighting biological vulnerabilities and abnormalities.