The detailed instructions are attached, please pay close att…

The detailed instructions are attached, please pay close attention to them. I do expect at least a B as this assignment is not difficult in nature. Anything less and, well, we will cross that bridge once we get to it. Hopefully we will not. Thanks in advance. PS…the price is what i can afford. This will be 2 pages at most. You will know that once you read the instructions.


The study of human cognition has been a longstanding interest in the field of psychology. Over the years, researchers have conducted numerous studies to better understand how humans process and acquire knowledge, and how cognitive processes impact behavior. One particular area of interest is the study of working memory and its role in cognitive functioning.

Working memory refers to the system responsible for temporarily storing and manipulating information during cognitive tasks. It is considered a fundamental component of complex cognitive processes, such as problem-solving, decision-making, and language comprehension. Working memory is distinct from long-term memory, which is responsible for the storage and retrieval of information over extended periods.

This assignment aims to explore the concept of working memory and its importance in cognitive functioning. Additionally, it will discuss the role of working memory in various cognitive tasks, such as attention, executive functions, and learning. Furthermore, this assignment will examine the neural mechanisms underlying working memory and explore the impact of working memory deficits on cognitive functioning and everyday life.

The Concept of Working Memory

Working memory can be understood as a limited-capacity system that allows for the temporary storage and manipulation of information required for ongoing cognitive tasks (Baddeley, 2012). Unlike sensory memory, which registers raw sensory input, or long-term memory, which houses information over extended periods, working memory operates in the present moment.

The working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) suggests that working memory consists of multiple components, each responsible for different aspects of information processing. The central executive component acts as the controller of the system, allocating attention and coordinating the operations of the other components.

Two other key components of the working memory model are the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad. The phonological loop deals with the storage and manipulation of auditory and verbal information, such as remembering a phone number or rehearsing a list of words. The visuospatial sketchpad, on the other hand, stores and manipulates visual and spatial information, such as remembering a specific location or mentally rotating an object.

Furthermore, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) later added the episodic buffer as a fourth component of working memory, responsible for integrating information from different modalities and linking it to long-term memory. This allows for the formation of a coherent mental representation of ongoing events, facilitating comprehension and problem-solving.

The Role of Working Memory in Cognitive Functioning

Working memory is crucial for a wide range of cognitive tasks, including those related to attention, executive functions, and learning. Attention refers to the ability to selectively focus on relevant information while ignoring irrelevant distractions. Working memory plays a pivotal role in attentional processes, as it enables the maintenance and manipulation of relevant information while attending to a specific task or goal.

Executive functions refer to a set of higher-level cognitive processes responsible for planning, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and goal-directed behavior (Diamond, 2013). Working memory provides a cognitive workspace for executive functions to operate, allowing for the storage of relevant information and the strategic manipulation of this information to achieve desired goals.

In the context of learning, working memory plays a crucial role in the acquisition and processing of new information. Without an adequate working memory capacity, individuals may struggle to comprehend, integrate, and apply new knowledge effectively. Working memory enables the temporary storage of new information, facilitating its integration with existing knowledge and encoding it into long-term memory.

Moreover, working memory is involved in various language processes, such as sentence comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and reading comprehension (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980; Gathercole et al., 2006). The phonological loop component of working memory, in particular, is critical for the storage and processing of verbal information, including speech sounds and words.

Neural Mechanisms Underlying Working Memory

Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying working memory has been the subject of extensive research. Neuroimaging studies, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG), have provided insights into the brain regions involved in working memory processes.

The prefrontal cortex (PFC), particularly the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), is consistently implicated in working memory tasks (Miller & Cohen, 2001). The PFC is involved in the active maintenance and manipulation of information, as well as the executive control processes required for selecting and coordinating cognitive operations.

Other brain regions, such as the parietal cortex and the inferior temporal cortex, are also engaged during working memory tasks (Curtis & D’Esposito, 2003; Ranganath & D’Esposito, 2005). These regions contribute to various aspects of working memory, such as attentional mechanisms, visual-spatial processing, and the integration of information from different modalities.

Working Memory Deficits and Cognitive Functioning

Working memory deficits can significantly impact cognitive functioning and everyday life. Individuals with working memory impairments may experience difficulties in various domains, including learning, attention, problem-solving, and language processing.

For example, individuals with working memory deficits may struggle to maintain focus and sustain attention over extended periods. This can lead to reduced academic performance, as it becomes challenging to concentrate on lectures, follow instructions, or complete complex tasks that require working memory resources.

Working memory deficits can also affect problem-solving abilities and decision-making processes. Without adequate working memory capacity, individuals may struggle to hold and manipulate relevant information, hindering their ability to generate and evaluate potential solutions to complex problems.

Furthermore, working memory deficits can impact language processing, particularly in tasks requiring the storage and manipulation of verbal information. Difficulties in remembering and organizing verbal information can hinder comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, and reading comprehension.

In conclusion, working memory is a critical cognitive system involved in the temporary storage and manipulation of information. It plays a fundamental role in various cognitive processes, including attention, executive functions, learning, and language processing. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying working memory and the consequences of working memory deficits is essential for comprehending human cognition and its intricate relationship with behavior and everyday life. Future research may further clarify the mechanisms underlying working memory and potentially reveal interventions to improve working memory capacity and functioning.