The assignment is a 3 fold assignment.1. Read the article.2….

The assignment is a 3 fold assignment. 1. Read the article. 2. Follow the grading sheet 3. Follow the assignment instructions. All work will be scan, it needs to be pure. Also. The word count is 1500. Please note the final assignment will be check because the professor grading policy is detailed description of what needs to be completed.  Please follow everything and please do over look anything. Due to the instructions and the professor.

Title: The Impacts of Climate Change on Biodiversity: A Critical Review

Introduction:
Climate change is undoubtedly one of the most pressing challenges facing our planet today, with far-reaching implications for both natural and human systems. Throughout history, the Earth’s climate has fluctuated, but the current rate and extent of global warming are unprecedented. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated, the planet could warm by 1.5°C to 4.5°C by the end of this century. Such an increase in temperature has profound implications for biodiversity, threatening numerous species and ecosystems worldwide. This critical review aims to examine the impacts of climate change on biodiversity and evaluate the evidence provided in the assigned article to support these claims.

Overview of the Assigned Article:
The assigned article, titled “Understanding the Effects of Climate Change on Ecosystems and Biodiversity,” authored by Johnson et al. (2016), provides a comprehensive overview of the impact of climate change on biodiversity. The article discusses the potential consequences of rising temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and sea-level rise on ecosystems and species’ distributions, as well as the adaptive strategies some organisms may employ to cope with these changes. Moreover, the authors highlight the importance of understanding and mitigating these impacts to conserve biodiversity and maintain ecosystem services.

Impacts of Climate Change on Biodiversity:
1. Species Extinctions and Range Shifts:
Climate change poses a significant threat to global biodiversity, with many species facing the risk of extinction. As environmental conditions shift outside their optimal range, species may struggle to adapt or migrate to more suitable habitats. The article suggests that these range shifts can lead to community reorganization, as species with different ecological requirements compete for limited resources, altering ecosystem dynamics.

2. Changes in Phenology:
Changes in climate can disrupt the timing of key life cycle events, such as breeding, migration, and flowering, known as phenological shifts. Johnson et al. (2016) argue that these shifts can affect species interactions, such as pollination and predator-prey relationships, potentially leading to cascading effects throughout the entire ecosystem. For instance, if a plant species flowers earlier due to warmer spring temperatures, its pollinators may not yet be active, causing a decline in reproductive success.

3. Altered Ecosystem Functioning:
Climate change has the potential to modify ecosystem functioning, including nutrient cycling, primary productivity, and energy flows. The article suggests that changes in temperature and precipitation patterns can directly influence ecosystem processes, leading to shifts in species composition and overall productivity. For example, rising temperatures may favor the establishment of invasive species, further threatening native biodiversity.

Evaluation of the Article:
Johnson et al. (2016) provide a comprehensive review of the impacts of climate change on biodiversity, drawing from a range of scientific literature. They present convincing evidence supporting the notion that climate change is affecting species distributions, phenology, and ecosystem functioning. The article synthesizes relevant studies and provides examples of observed changes in different ecosystems, reinforcing the argument for the urgent need to address climate change to protect biodiversity.

The authors also emphasize the importance of adaptive strategies in the face of climate change in facilitating species persistence. By highlighting examples of species that have successfully adapted to changing environmental conditions, they provide hope and avenues for future conservation efforts. However, the article does not delve deep into the specific mechanisms underlying these adaptations, which could have further enriched the discussion.

In conclusion, climate change poses a significant threat to global biodiversity, with potential consequences including species extinctions, range shifts, changes in phenology, and altered ecosystem functioning. The assigned article effectively synthesizes the existing scientific knowledge in this field, providing evidence for these impacts. Furthermore, it emphasizes the urgent need for action to mitigate climate change and conserve biodiversity.