response should be at least 500 words in length. You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for your response. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations. Book- Critical Thinkinh by Richard Paul . Linda Elder STAGE 1 THE UNREFLECTIVE THINKER STAGE 2 THE CHALLENGED THINKER STAGE 3 THE BEGINNING THINKER STAGE 4 THE PRACTICING THINKER
In Richard Paul and Linda Elder’s book “Critical Thinking,” the authors outline four stages of critical thinking development: the unreflective thinker, the challenged thinker, the beginning thinker, and the practicing thinker. These stages illustrate the progression from a limited and unexamined thinking approach towards a more systematic, reflective, and disciplined thinking process.
The first stage, the unreflective thinker, is characterized by a lack of awareness of the role that thinking plays in one’s life. Individuals in this stage tend to rely heavily on personal biases, emotions, and assumptions, without critically questioning or analyzing them. They often accept information as true without interrogating its accuracy or validity. The unreflective thinker may also be easily persuaded by persuasive rhetoric or faulty reasoning, as they do not possess the skills or willingness to critically evaluate arguments.
The second stage, the challenged thinker, begins to recognize the importance of critical thinking but may struggle to engage in it consistently. Individuals in this stage often face challenges to their thinking, such as the exposure to diverse perspectives or contradictory information. This stage can be uncomfortable and unsettling, as it requires individuals to confront their own beliefs and be open to alternative viewpoints. The challenged thinker may experience cognitive dissonance as they encounter ideas that conflict with their previously held beliefs. However, this stage is essential for personal growth and intellectual development, as it prompts individuals to reevaluate their assumptions and consider alternative perspectives.
As individuals progress to the third stage, the beginning thinker, they acquire the basic tools and skills of critical thinking. They become more aware of their own thinking processes and start to question their assumptions and beliefs. The beginning thinker seeks out evidence, evaluates arguments, and recognizes their own biases. However, individuals in this stage may still struggle with consistently applying critical thinking skills, as they are not yet fully comfortable with practicing them. Mistakes and errors in reasoning are common at this stage, but they serve as opportunities for learning and improvement.
The final stage, the practicing thinker, represents the highest level of critical thinking development. At this stage, individuals consistently apply critical thinking skills in a disciplined and rigorous manner. The practicing thinker is able to identify assumptions, recognize bias, evaluate evidence, analyze arguments, and make reasoned judgments. They engage in reflective thinking and continuously strive to improve their critical thinking abilities. This stage requires ongoing practice and commitment to developing and refining one’s thinking skills.
These four stages of critical thinking development reflect a progression from uncritical and unreflective thinking to a more disciplined and reflective approach. Moving through these stages requires a willingness to challenge one’s own thinking and engage in self-reflection. It also necessitates the acquisition of critical thinking skills and a commitment to consistently applying them.
In conclusion, the stages of critical thinking development outlined by Paul and Elder provide a framework for understanding the progression from a limited and unexamined thinking approach to a more systematic and disciplined thinking process. The unreflective thinker, the challenged thinker, the beginning thinker, and the practicing thinker represent different levels of critical thinking development, with the practicing thinker being the highest level. Moving through these stages requires self-awareness, open-mindedness, and a commitment to developing and refining one’s critical thinking skills.