Pharmacotherapy and Medication Assisted Therapy Chart Direc…

Pharmacotherapy and Medication Assisted Therapy Chart Directions: Complete the following Pharmacotherapy and Medication Assisted Therapy chart: For each “Purpose of Medication,” list the name of a medication that is used for the purpose listed. Complete each of the remaining fields for the medication listed. List references in the “References” section provided below the chart. MUST BE DONE ON THE WORKSHEET MUST PASS TURN IT IN WITH LESS THAN 5%

Pharmacotherapy and Medication Assisted Therapy Chart

Purpose of Medication
| Medication Name | Dosage | Route of Administration | Mechanism of Action | Side Effects | Contraindications/Precautions | Monitoring | References |
—————————
1. Opioid Use Disorder
2. Alcohol Use Disorder
3. Smoking Cessation
4. Depression
5. Anxiety
6. Bipolar Disorder
7. Schizophrenia
8. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
9. Insomnia
10. Alzheimer’s Disease

In the field of pharmacy and medication-assisted therapy, several medications are utilized to address a wide range of conditions. The purpose of this chart is to outline specific medications commonly used for different therapeutic purposes. Each medication is accompanied by various details, such as dosage, route of administration, mechanism of action, side effects, contraindications/precautions, and monitoring requirements.

1. Opioid Use Disorder:
Medication Name: Buprenorphine
Dosage: 8mg sublingually, followed by 2mg every 2 hours as needed
Route of Administration: Sublingual
Mechanism of Action: Buprenorphine is a partial agonist at the mu-opioid receptor and an antagonist at the kappa-opioid receptor. It reduces cravings and withdrawal symptoms without producing the same level of euphoria as full agonists.
Side Effects: Constipation, drowsiness, headache, nausea, and sweating
Contraindications/Precautions: Allergy to buprenorphine or naloxone, severe hepatic impairment, significant respiratory depression, and pregnancy
Monitoring: Periodic assessment of liver function, urine drug screens, and patient counseling on medication adherence

2. Alcohol Use Disorder:
Medication Name: Disulfiram
Dosage: 250mg-500mg daily, given in a single dose
Route of Administration: Oral
Mechanism of Action: Disulfiram inhibits the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase, leading to the accumulation of acetaldehyde when alcohol is consumed. This results in an unpleasant reaction, including flushing, nausea, and palpitations, discouraging further alcohol consumption.
Side Effects: Drowsiness, headache, fatigue, impotence, and metallic or garlic-like aftertaste
Contraindications/Precautions: Severe myocardial disease, psychosis, concurrent use of alcohol or alcohol-containing medications, and pregnancy
Monitoring: Liver function tests, mental status evaluation, and alcohol breath tests

3. Smoking Cessation:
Medication Name: Varenicline
Dosage: 0.5mg daily for the first three days, then 0.5mg twice daily for days 4-7, followed by 1mg twice daily for 12 weeks
Route of Administration: Oral
Mechanism of Action: Varenicline is a partial agonist at the alpha4-beta2 nicotine acetylcholine receptor, reducing the urge to smoke and attenuating the rewarding effects of nicotine.
Side Effects: Nausea, insomnia, abnormal dreams, headache, and taste disturbance
Contraindications/Precautions: History of serious psychiatric illness, pregnancy, and renal impairment (dose adjustment required)
Monitoring: Monitoring for mood changes, suicidal thoughts, and behavior

4. Depression:
Medication Name: Sertraline
Dosage: 50mg once daily, may increase to 200mg per day
Route of Administration: Oral
Mechanism of Action: Sertraline selectively inhibits the reuptake of serotonin at the presynaptic membrane, increasing its availability in the synaptic cleft and improving mood.
Side Effects: Nausea, diarrhea, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and weight changes
Contraindications/Precautions: Concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), hypersensitivity to sertraline, pregnancy, and breastfeeding
Monitoring: Monitoring for suicidal thoughts, worsening depression, and serum sodium levels

5. Anxiety:
Medication Name: Alprazolam
Dosage: 0.25mg-0.5mg three times daily, with a maximum of 4mg/day
Route of Administration: Oral
Mechanism of Action: Alprazolam enhances the inhibitory effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the central nervous system, providing anxiolytic effects.
Side Effects: Drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, impaired coordination, and paradoxical reactions
Contraindications/Precautions: Hypersensitivity to benzodiazepines, acute narrow-angle glaucoma, concurrent use of ketoconazole or itraconazole, pregnancy, and breastfeeding
Monitoring: Assessment of sedation, respiratory status, and development of tolerance or dependence

6. Bipolar Disorder:
Medication Name: Lithium
Dosage: 300mg-450mg in divided doses, up to 900-1800mg per day
Route of Administration: Oral
Mechanism of Action: Lithium alters sodium transport in nerve and muscle cells, affecting the reuptake and release of neurotransmitters involved in mood regulation.
Side Effects: Polyuria, fine hand tremor, weight gain, hypothyroidism, and nausea
Contraindications/Precautions: Significant renal impairment, severe dehydration, sodium depletion, and pregnancy
Monitoring: Serum lithium levels, renal function tests, thyroid function tests, and weight changes

7. Schizophrenia:
Medication Name: Risperidone
Dosage: 1mg twice daily, may increase to 4-8mg per day in divided doses
Route of Administration: Oral
Mechanism of Action: Risperidone is a dopamine and serotonin antagonist, leading to the reduction of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Side Effects: Sedation, orthostatic hypotension, weight gain, hyperprolactinemia, and extrapyramidal symptoms
Contraindications/Precautions: Prolonged QT interval, uncontrolled hypertension, severe cardiovascular disease, dementia-related psychosis, and pregnancy
Monitoring: Blood pressure, weight, fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, and extrapyramidal symptoms

8. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD):
Medication Name: Methylphenidate
Dosage: 5mg twice daily, may increase to 20-30mg daily in divided doses
Route of Administration: Oral
Mechanism of Action: Methylphenidate blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, improving attention and reducing hyperactivity and impulsivity.
Side Effects: Insomnia, decreased appetite, weight loss, increased heart rate, and increased blood pressure
Contraindications/Precautions: Concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), severe anxiety, glaucoma, tics or Tourette’s syndrome, and pregnancy
Monitoring: Monitoring for growth suppression, cardiovascular effects, psychiatric symptoms, and abuse potential

9. Insomnia:
Medication Name: Zolpidem
Dosage: 5mg-10mg at bedtime, not to exceed 10mg per day
Route of Administration: Oral
Mechanism of Action: Zolpidem binds selectively to the alpha-1 subunit of the GABA-A receptor, promoting sleep initiation.
Side Effects: Daytime drowsiness, dizziness, headache, nausea, and sleepwalking/sleep-driving
Contraindications/Precautions: Concurrent use of other sedative-hypnotics, respiratory depression, severe hepatic impairment, and pregnancy
Monitoring: Assessing sleep quality, evaluating the possibility of abuse or dependence

10. Alzheimer’s Disease:
Medication Name: Donepezil
Dosage: 5mg daily, may increase to 10mg daily after 4-6 weeks
Route of Administration: Oral
Mechanism of Action: Donepezil inhibits acetylcholinesterase, increasing acetylcholine levels in the brain and improving cognitive function in Alzheimer’s disease.
Side Effects: Nausea, diarrhea, bradycardia, insomnia, and muscle cramps
Contraindications/Precautions: Hypersensitivity to donepezil or piperidine derivatives, gastrointestinal bleeding, and concurrent use of other cholinergic agents
Monitoring: Assessment of cognitive function, evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms, and monitoring for drug interactions.