ONE PARAGRAPH ANSWERING BOTH QUESTIONS 1. Define and discuss the idea of a task set with an example (refer to research that has been done by others) 2. Define and discuss the idea of task set reconfiguration, and explain how this idea explains the task switching cost. (also define switch cost) [FIRST READING (INTRO MONSELL) IS BEST, BUT IF YOU NEED MORE INFO THE SECOND ONE CAN HELP. PLEASE IGNORE THE HIGHLIGHTED AREAS]

A task set refers to a cognitive representation of the rules and strategies necessary to successfully perform a particular task. It encompasses the attentional and executive control mechanisms that guide behavior in a goal-directed manner. For instance, imagine a person performing a computerized task in which they have to classify various shapes based on their color. In this scenario, the task set would include instructions on how to attend to the color of the shapes, classify them, and respond accordingly. Research by Monsell (2003) suggests that a task set can be thought of as a mental template that specifies the relevant features of a task and guides the allocation of attention and cognitive resources. Such mental representations facilitate efficient task performance by reducing the need for constant recalibration or relearning when encountering similar stimuli or situations.

Task set reconfiguration, on the other hand, refers to the cognitive process involved in switching from one task set to another. When individuals switch from performing one task to another, they need to adjust their attentional and cognitive resources to effectively carry out the new task. This reconfiguration process often incurs costs in terms of time and accuracy, known as task switching costs. Task switching costs have been extensively studied in cognitive psychology, and they can manifest as increased response times, decreased accuracy, or both.

Monsell’s (2003) research discusses the idea of task set reconfiguration and provides insights into how this concept explains task switching costs. According to Monsell, the time required for task set reconfiguration depends on several factors. Firstly, the relative similarity or dissimilarity between the two tasks being switched influences the speed and accuracy of reconfiguration. If the tasks share similar features or require overlapping cognitive processes, reconfiguration might be faster and yield fewer costs. Conversely, if the tasks are dissimilar, it might take longer to reconfigure the task set, resulting in higher task switching costs.

Secondly, task set reconfiguration can be influenced by the frequency of task switching. Monsell’s research suggests that with more frequent task switches, individuals may develop better task-set reconfiguration skills, leading to reduced task switching costs over time. This finding aligns with the notion of cognitive flexibility and adaptability, where individuals acquire experience and strategies to facilitate efficient task switching.

Furthermore, task set reconfiguration is also affected by top-down control processes, such as goal maintenance and attentional set shifting. Goal maintenance refers to the ability to actively hold task-related information in working memory, enabling individuals to maintain their task goals even during task switches. Attentional set shifting, on the other hand, involves the ability to flexibly switch attention between different stimulus dimensions or cognitive processes according to task demands. Both goal maintenance and attentional set shifting tasks contribute to the efficient updating and reconfiguration of the task set.

In conclusion, a task set is a cognitive representation that guides behavior during task performance, while task set reconfiguration involves the process of switching from one task set to another. Task switching costs arise due to the time and accuracy losses incurred during task set reconfiguration. Monsell’s research highlights the importance of task similarity, task frequency, and top-down control processes in understanding task set reconfiguration and task switching costs. By considering these factors, researchers can gain insights into the underlying cognitive mechanisms involved in task switching and potentially develop interventions to minimize task switching costs.