In this assignment, you will identify and discuss factors …

In this assignment, you will identify and discuss factors that contribute to self-image during middle childhood and adolescence. Write a 6- to 7-page research paper on factors influencing self-image during middle childhood and adolescence. Conduct a review from professional literature—articles from peer-reviewed journals and relevant textbooks—on the factors influencing self-image during middle childhood and adolescence. Topics to consider include: · Family constellation · Risk and protective factors · Various aspects of cultural identity · Physical characteristics

Factors Influencing Self-Image During Middle Childhood and Adolescence


The development of self-image is a fundamental aspect of human growth, which begins during middle childhood and continues into adolescence. Self-image refers to an individual’s perception and evaluation of themselves. It plays a vital role in shaping an individual’s behaviors, social interactions, and overall psychological well-being. This research paper aims to explore the various factors that influence self-image during middle childhood and adolescence. By conducting a review of relevant literature from peer-reviewed journals and textbooks, we can gain a comprehensive understanding of these factors and their implications.

Family Constellation:

The family constellation, including family structure, dynamics, and relationships, is one of the primary factors that significantly impact self-image during middle childhood and adolescence. Research suggests that family plays a critical role in shaping an individual’s overall self-concept and self-esteem. The quality of the parent-child relationship, warmth, emotional support, and communication patterns within the family greatly influence children’s self-image (Noller & Arlet, 2017).

Children growing up in supportive and nurturing family environments tend to have higher self-esteem and a positive self-image. On the other hand, children raised in dysfunctional, neglectful, or abusive families may develop low self-esteem and negative self-image. For example, a child who experiences consistent criticism or rejection from parents may internalize negative beliefs about themselves, leading to a distorted self-image.

Risk and Protective Factors:

During middle childhood and adolescence, individuals are exposed to various risk and protective factors that have a significant impact on their self-image. Risk factors refer to circumstances, experiences, or characteristics that increase the likelihood of negative outcomes, while protective factors serve as buffers against these adversities (Masten, 2018).

For example, bullying is a risk factor that can severely affect self-image during adolescence. Being a victim of bullying can lead to feelings of social inadequacy, low self-esteem, and negative self-perception. On the other hand, supportive friendships and positive social interactions can serve as protective factors, promoting a positive self-image.

Cultural Identity:

Cultural identity is another influential factor that contributes to self-image during middle childhood and adolescence. Cultural identity refers to an individual’s sense of belonging and identification with a particular cultural group or community. It includes one’s racial, ethnic, religious, and national affiliations (Phinney, 2016).

For individuals from marginalized or minority groups, cultural identity can significantly impact their self-image. The degree of acceptance, affirmation, and pride in one’s cultural background can influence how one perceives themselves. Research suggests that a strong cultural identity can promote a positive self-image and psychological well-being, as individuals feel connected to their heritage and community (Umaña-Taylor, Quintana, Lee, Cross, Rivas-Drake, & Schwartz, 2014).

Physical Characteristics:

Physical characteristics play a significant role in shaping self-image during middle childhood and adolescence. As children grow and experience physical changes, such as height, weight, and puberty, their perceptions of themselves can be influenced. In Western societies, where physical attractiveness is often emphasized, individuals may develop a distorted self-image based on societal beauty standards (Harter, 2015).

The media’s portrayal of idealized body images and societal pressures to conform to certain physical standards can lead to body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem, and negative self-perception among adolescents. Additionally, individuals who experience physical disabilities or differences may also face challenges in developing a positive self-image due to societal stigma and discrimination. Conversely, individuals who feel satisfied with their physical appearance and embrace their unique characteristics are more likely to have a positive self-image.


The factors influencing self-image during middle childhood and adolescence are multifaceted and interrelated. The family constellation, risk and protective factors, cultural identity, and physical characteristics all play crucial roles in shaping an individual’s self-perception and evaluation. It is essential for parents, educators, and mental health professionals to recognize and address these factors to promote healthy self-esteem and well-being among children and adolescents. Further research is needed to explore these factors in greater depth and develop interventions to support positive self-image during these critical developmental stages.