In this assignment, you will compose three original example…

In this assignment, you will compose three original examples of informal fallacy arguments. This assignment allows you to examine common fallacies in everyday reasoning. Using the types of arguments listed in the textbook chapter “Flimsy Structures,” respond to the following: Next, using the Internet, respond to the following: Support your statements with examples and scholarly references. Write your initial response in 1–2 paragraphs. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

Informal fallacies are commonly encountered in everyday reasoning, and understanding them is crucial for critical thinking. In this assignment, three original examples of informal fallacy arguments will be composed. These examples will be drawn from the types of arguments listed in the textbook chapter “Flimsy Structures.” Additionally, scholarly references and examples will be used to support the statements made.

The first example of an informal fallacy argument is the ad hominem fallacy. This fallacy occurs when an individual attacks the person making an argument instead of addressing the argument itself. For instance, suppose a politician is advocating for stricter gun control laws. Instead of engaging with the arguments presented by the politician, an opponent may attack their personal character or past actions, arguing that their stance on gun control is invalid because they have been involved in scandals in the past. This ad hominem attack fails to address the actual merits or flaws of the argument for stricter gun control and instead focuses on discrediting the politician.

The second example is the appeal to ignorance fallacy. This fallacy occurs when an argument is based on the lack of evidence or knowledge, rather than on the presence of evidence or valid reasoning. For example, consider a debate about the existence of extraterrestrial life. One person argues that because there is no scientific evidence to prove the existence of aliens, they must not exist. This argument is flawed because it assumes that the absence of evidence is evidence of absence. Just because we currently lack evidence or knowledge about something does not mean that it does not exist or cannot be true. The appeal to ignorance fallacy disregards the need for positive evidence to support a claim.

The third example is the hasty generalization fallacy. This fallacy occurs when a conclusion is drawn based on insufficient or selective evidence. For instance, imagine someone claiming that all men are bad drivers based on a few instances of witnessing reckless driving by male individuals. This hasty generalization ignores the fact that there are numerous skilled male drivers and that reckless driving is not exclusive to any particular gender. In this example, the conclusion about all men being bad drivers is reached based on insufficient evidence and fails to consider the diversity within the group being generalized.

To support the statements made above, scholarly references and examples can be utilized. For instance, in discussing the ad hominem fallacy, the work of Douglas Walton, a renowned expert in informal logic, can be referenced. Walton has extensively studied and written about this fallacy, providing numerous examples and analyses of its occurrence. By referencing Walton’s work, we can add credibility to our argument and demonstrate that the ad hominem fallacy is a well-documented phenomenon in the field of informal logic.

Similarly, for the appeal to ignorance fallacy, the work of Carl Sagan can be referenced. Sagan was a highly respected astronomer and science communicator who emphasized the importance of evidence-based reasoning and cautioned against relying on the lack of evidence as sufficient proof of non-existence. By citing Sagan’s writings and speeches, we can strengthen our argument and further illustrate the fallacy of appealing to ignorance.

Lastly, for the hasty generalization fallacy, the work of Jon Haidt, a renowned social psychologist and author, can be referenced. Haidt has conducted research on moral psychology and the cognitive processes underlying our judgments and decisions. In his book “The Righteous Mind,” Haidt discusses how hasty generalizations stem from our intuitive and often unconscious reliance on stereotypes and biases. By citing Haidt’s research, we can demonstrate that the hasty generalization fallacy is a well-established cognitive phenomenon.