In a minimum of 350 words answer all questions: Include at l…

In a minimum of 350 words answer all questions: Include at least one reference from : Steege, M. W. (2009). What are Motivating Operations (MO) and why is this behavior concept so important for a Functional Behavioral Assessment? In your response please outline the specific definition of the concept and review two of the various types of MO’s. Be sure to include references to both conditioned and unconditioned MO’s. Conclude your response with a real-life example to bolster your post. Purchase the answer to view it

Motivating Operations (MO) is a behavior concept that plays a critical role in Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA). It refers to the environmental stimuli or events that alter the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of a consequence, and consequently influence behavior (Steege, 2009). In simpler terms, MOs are factors or conditions that increase or decrease the likelihood of a behavior occurring.

There are two broad types of MOs: conditioned and unconditioned. Conditioned MOs are environmental changes that have been paired with a particular consequence over time, resulting in an altered value of that consequence. In other words, these changes have become associated with either reinforcement or punishment and can evoke or suppress behavior accordingly. An example of a conditioned MO is a light being paired with the delivery of food to a hungry animal. Over time, the light itself becomes a cue for the animal, increasing the motivation to engage in the behavior of approaching the food. Conversely, if the light is paired with an aversive stimulus, such as an electric shock, it becomes a cue for the animal to avoid or escape from the shock. Thus, conditioned MOs can create motivation to approach or avoid certain stimuli.

On the other hand, unconditioned MOs are environmental changes that have an immediate influence on the effectiveness of the consequence, without any prior conditioning. These changes are biologically or naturally significant and can lead to increases or decreases in the strength of behavior. Unconditioned MOs can be further categorized into establishing operations (EOs) and abolishing operations (AOs). EOs are events or conditions that increase the reinforcing effectiveness of a consequence. For example, a person who has not eaten for several hours would experience hunger as an EO. In this case, food becomes a highly reinforcing consequence, and the motivation to obtain it will be strong. In contrast, AOs are events or conditions that decrease the reinforcing effectiveness of a consequence. An example of an AO would be satiation, where a person has just eaten a large meal and no longer finds food reinforcing. Therefore, even if food is available, the motivation to consume it will be reduced.

Understanding and identifying MOs is crucial in conducting a Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA). FBA is a systematic process of collecting data to understand why a behavior occurs and to develop effective strategies for modifying it. By examining the antecedents and consequences of behavior, as well as the specific MOs at play, FBA aims to identify the function of the behavior and the variables that influence its occurrence. This information is used to develop interventions that target the underlying causes of the behavior rather than solely addressing the behavior itself.

To illustrate the importance of MOs in FBA, consider a child who frequently engages in aggressive behavior at school. Through an FBA process, it is discovered that the child’s aggressive behavior is more likely to occur after lunchtime. Upon further investigation, it is revealed that the child has difficulty communicating his needs and wants, which often leads to frustration. In this case, the child’s hunger (a conditioned MO) after lunch acts as an establishing operation, increasing the reinforcing value of aggressive behavior as a means to obtain desired items or attention. Armed with this knowledge, interventions can be implemented, such as providing the child with a snack before lunch to address hunger and reducing the likelihood of aggressive behavior.

In conclusion, Motivating Operations (MOs) are essential in the field of behavior analysis, particularly in Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA). They refer to environmental changes that alter the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of a consequence, influencing behavior. MOs can be conditioned or unconditioned, such as a conditioned light associated with reinforcement or an unconditioned hunger as an establishing operation. Understanding MOs is crucial for identifying the function of behavior and developing effective intervention strategies. By recognizing the specific MOs at play, behavior analysts can address the underlying causes of behavior rather than simply treating the behavior itself.