I need to do APA Using only peer review articles not intern…

I need to do APA  Using only peer review articles not internet source, my research is going to be base on studing if the Justice System, just or is taking in consideration juvenile crimes base on the development of they frontal lobe that is the one in charge on the making decision process, and how its developing jusr or is or will affect the judgment of those juveniles commiting crimes

The Justice System’s Consideration of Juvenile Crimes Based on the Development of the Frontal Lobe: Implications for Judgment


The frontal lobe plays a crucial role in the decision-making process, impulse control, and judgment. As individuals progress from childhood through adolescence, the frontal lobe undergoes significant development, which continues into early adulthood. This development is imperative for informed decision-making and plays a pivotal role in determining an individual’s ability to understand the consequences of their actions. Therefore, it is essential to examine how the justice system considers the development of the frontal lobe when dealing with juvenile crimes. This study seeks to explore whether the justice system adequately accounts for the developmental differences in the frontal lobe and its potential impact on the judgment of juvenile offenders.

Literature Review

The frontal lobe’s development during adolescence has been widely studied in the field of neuroscience. Research consistently demonstrates that the frontal lobe, responsible for higher-order cognitive functions, such as decision-making and impulse control, undergoes substantial maturation during this period (Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006; Galvan, 2014). These changes include strengthening of the neural connections, improved cognitive flexibility, and increased understanding of social and emotional cues (Blakemore & Robbins, 2012; Somerville & Casey, 2010). Consequently, this maturation process in the frontal lobe significantly affects the judgment and decision-making capacity of adolescents.

However, despite the well-established evidence regarding the role of the frontal lobe in decision-making, there is limited research concerning its direct implications for the justice system’s treatment of juvenile offenders. Scholars argue that the justice system should consider the developmental differences in the frontal lobe when addressing juvenile crimes (Casey & Caudle, 2013; Steinberg & Cauffman, 2006). Failure to account for the immaturity of the frontal lobe can lead to harsher punishments for juveniles who may have limited cognitive abilities to fully comprehend the consequences of their actions. Additionally, it raises concerns regarding the ability of juveniles to provide informed consent during legal proceedings.

Juvenile justice policies have traditionally relied on the understanding that individuals below the age of 18 are still developing and should be treated differently from their adult counterparts. In line with this, the Supreme Court has gradually recognized that juvenile offenders should be treated differently due to their still developing brain. For instance, in Roper v. Simmons (2005), the Supreme Court abolished the death penalty for juveniles, recognizing that their cognitive and moral development may hinder full culpability for their actions. Subsequently, in Graham v. Florida (2010), the Court held that life without parole sentences for non-homicide offenses committed by juveniles violate the Eighth Amendment’s prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment.

However, despite these Supreme Court decisions providing some recognition of the developmental differences between juvenile and adult offenders, there remain concerns regarding the extent to which the justice system is effectively taking into account the developmental implications of the frontal lobe. Some argue that the justice system still primarily relies on punitive measures rather than rehabilitative approaches, potentially disregarding the unique circumstances juveniles with underdeveloped frontal lobes face (Scott & Steinberg, 2008). To address these concerns, it is important to investigate the current state of the justice system’s consideration of the frontal lobe development in juvenile crimes.


This study will utilize a systematic review approach to evaluate the existing research on the justice system’s consideration of the frontal lobe development in juvenile crimes. Only peer-reviewed articles published within the last ten years will be included to ensure the relevance and accuracy of the findings. A comprehensive search of databases, such as PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar, will be conducted using keywords relevant to the topic, such as “frontal lobe development,” “juvenile justice system,” and “decision-making capacity.” Additionally, the reference lists of relevant articles will be analyzed to identify additional sources that may have been missed during the initial database search.

The articles identified will be critically reviewed to assess the extent to which they address the justice system’s consideration of the frontal lobe development. The findings will be synthesized to identify common themes and patterns in the literature. The limitations of the existing research will be acknowledged, and suggestions for further research in the field will be provided. The study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the justice system’s consideration of the frontal lobe development in juvenile crimes and highlight potential areas for improvement.