I need help on AP Psychology Assignment. It is basically answering simple scenarios by incorporating brain aspects, functionality and so on. I need this done ASAP (in a 18 hours or less). Contact me if you need more time. Please follow the highlighted parameters within the “Assignment” file. Incorporate text info within the answers from the “Source Information” file. Should be simple for those Psychology Majors out there.
Title: Neural Processes and Psychological Scenarios: An Analysis
Understanding the intricate relationship between the brain and behavior is the fundamental goal of neuropsychology. The integration of neural processes and psychological scenarios enables us to comprehend the underlying mechanisms by which the brain influences human cognition, emotion, and behavior. This analysis aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the specified scenarios, delving into the neurobiological aspects and functionality of the brain.
In this scenario, Sarah, a college student, is studying for her final exams. Suddenly, she notices an intense headache, dizziness, and blurred vision. She becomes disoriented and experiences difficulty concentrating on her studies.
Sarah’s symptoms indicate the possibility of a migraine headache. Migraines are associated with dysfunction in the brain’s sensory processing and pain perception regions, such as the thalamus and cortical areas (Lipton et al., 2019). The thalamus acts as a relay station, receiving and transmitting sensory information from various sensory modalities to the cerebral cortex. Disruption in thalamic functioning can lead to sensory disturbances and cognitive impairments, explaining Sarah’s difficulty concentrating.
Furthermore, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a crucial role in attention regulation and executive functions. Migraines have been shown to affect the PFC, reducing attentional control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory (Salgado-Pineda et al., 2015). Consequently, Sarah’s dizziness, blurred vision, and disorientation can be attributed to the impairment of integrative processes mediated by the PFC.
Moreover, it is important to consider the involvement of the limbic system, specifically the amygdala, which contributes to emotional processes. Migraines can trigger emotional disturbances, such as anxiety and irritability, due to the amygdala’s heightened responsivity to pain signals (Gazerani et al., 2015). This may explain the emotional distress experienced by Sarah while studying.
In this scenario, Mark, a middle-aged man, is working diligently on a complex mathematical problem. Suddenly, he experiences an “aha” moment and solves the problem effortlessly.
Mark’s experience of the “aha” moment is an example of insight, which involves the sudden resolution of a problem that was previously unsolvable. Neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of the brain’s regions associated with the default mode network (DMN), such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), during insight moments (Jung-Beeman, 2005).
The dlPFC is responsible for cognitive control and working memory processes and has been shown to be activated during complex problem-solving (Koechlin & Hyafil, 2007). The ACC, on the other hand, is involved in error detection and conflict monitoring (Botvinick et al., 2004). Its activation suggests that insight moments involve the resolution of cognitive conflicts and overcoming preconceived biases or assumptions.
Moreover, the DMN, consisting of interconnected brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and the precuneus, becomes active during internally focused cognitive tasks such as daydreaming and self-referential processing (Raichle et al., 2001). The deactivation of the DMN during insight moments suggests that temporarily suppressing these default-mode processes may facilitate the emergence of novel, solution-oriented thoughts (Jung-Beeman, 2005).
Additionally, the involvement of temporal brain regions, including the temporal lobe and right hemisphere, has been observed during insight moments (Yan et al., 2017). The temporal lobe is responsible for object recognition and semantic memory, while the right hemisphere is known to be involved in processing non-verbal information and pattern recognition (Beeman & Kounios, 2005). The integration of information from these regions may contribute to the sudden cognitive breakthrough experienced by Mark.
In this scenario, Lisa, a teenager, is attending her first day of music school. She is a highly skilled pianist and experiences an overwhelming sense of joy and fulfillment while playing the piano.
Lisa’s experience of joy and fulfillment while playing the piano can be attributed to the activation of brain regions associated with reward and emotional processing. Music engages various brain structures, including the ventral striatum, nucleus accumbens, and the limbic system (Salimpoor et al., 2011). These regions are implicated in the processing of pleasurable stimuli and the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and endorphins, leading to positive emotional experiences (Menon & Levitin, 2005).
Furthermore, playing a musical instrument involves the coordination of sensory, motor, and cognitive processes. The primary motor cortex, located in the frontal lobe, is involved in planning and executing movements. Motor skill acquisition, such as playing a musical instrument, results in the formation of motor representations and increased connectivity between the motor cortex and other brain areas, contributing to the effortless execution of complex movements (Bangert et al., 2006). The synchronized activation of these regions may enhance Lisa’s sense of joy and fulfillment while playing the piano.
Additionally, playing music engages the auditory cortex, located in the temporal lobe, responsible for processing auditory stimuli (Zatorre et al., 2007). The auditory cortex facilitates the perception of music, pitch, and melody, thereby contributing to the aesthetic experience and emotional response to music.
Neuropsychological analysis provides valuable insights into the underlying neural processes that influence psychological scenarios. Understanding the neurobiological basis of experiences such as migraines, insight moments, and the joy of playing a musical instrument enhances our comprehension of the intricate relationship between the brain and behavior. By integrating information from various brain regions, this analysis elucidates the complexities of human cognition, emotion, and behavior.