http://www.pearsonhighered.com/ciccarelli-psychology-info/as…

http://www.pearsonhighered.com/ciccarelli-psychology-info/assets/pdf/ciccarelli-0133827992-ch2.pdf after reading the chapter in the link above, take what you know about the central nervous system (CNS) and prove the statement “Action beats (or faster than) Reaction.” to be true. Be sure to include the following key information: CNS and PNS, Neurons, Synapse and Frontal Lobe (or Cerebeal Cortex) The essay should be no longer than one page. Tie in these terms in a concise manner.

Title: Action Beats Reaction: Insights from the Central Nervous System

Introduction:
The concept of action and reaction is one that has long fascinated scientists and philosophers alike. In the realm of neuroscience, the central nervous system (CNS) plays a pivotal role in coordinating our actions and responses. This essay aims to demonstrate that action beats reaction, supported by key elements such as the CNS, peripheral nervous system (PNS), neurons, synapse, and the frontal lobe (or cerebral cortex). By understanding the intricate workings of these components, we can better grasp the swift and efficient nature of action in relation to reaction.

The Central Nervous System (CNS):
The CNS, comprising the brain and spinal cord, serves as the command center for the body’s actions and responses. It receives and processes sensory information from the PNS before issuing appropriate instructions. Through a process called neural integration, the CNS rapidly analyzes incoming information and elicits a motor response. This intricate network of neurons forms the basis for the swift coordination of actions, outpacing any subsequent reaction.

Neurons as Messengers:
Neurons, the basic functional units of the nervous system, are responsible for transmitting signals and information throughout the body. These nerve cells consist of dendrites, which receive incoming signals, a cell body, and an axon, which transmits signals to neighboring neurons or effector organs. The briefer the distance between neurons, the quicker the transmission of signals. Thus, through this highly efficient communication system, action can be initiated more rapidly than a subsequent reaction.

Synapse: Bridging the Gap:
Within the nervous system, communication between neurons occurs at synapses, small gaps between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron or effector organ. When an action potential reaches the axon terminal, neurotransmitters are released into the synapse, binding with specific receptors on the adjacent neuron. This crucial exchange of neurotransmitters ensures the efficient transmission of signals from one neuron to another. The short duration of synaptic transmission contributes to the promptness of action, emphasizing the ability of action to beat reaction.

Frontal Lobe (or Cerebral Cortex):
The frontal lobe, particularly the prefrontal cortex, plays a critical role in decision-making, planning, and executing voluntary actions. This region of the brain is responsible for higher cognitive functions, including motor control, attention, and problem-solving. Through the complex interplay between the frontal lobe and other brain regions, the CNS rapidly orchestrates the execution of actions, surpassing reaction in terms of speed and efficiency.

Putting it All Together:
Through the integration of these key components, it becomes evident that action beats reaction. The CNS, with its swift neural integration and processing capabilities, expedites the transmission of signals throughout the body. Neurons, acting as messengers, transmit signals rapidly, optimizing efficiency. The synapse serves as the bridge between neurons, ensuring rapid and precise communication. Finally, the frontal lobe, with its executive functions, enables the CNS to initiate and carry out actions quickly and effectively.

In conclusion, the remarkable speed at which actions are performed compared to reactions can be attributed to the efficient functioning of the CNS, PNS, neurons, synapse, and the frontal lobe. The intricate neural networks and processes, spanning from initial sensory input to motor response, facilitate the rapid coordination and execution of actions. By understanding the complexities of the central nervous system, it becomes clear that action truly beats reaction.