Consider a person whom you are well-acquaited with and is su…

Consider a person whom you are well-acquaited with and is suffering from a medical illness. Describe the biological illness, cause of disease, psychological and social correlates to the disease, perceived stress of the patient, and all components (multi-facetedpsychological, social, health behaviors, etc) of the patient’s treatment. Discuss your comprehensive treatment recommendations. Reflect on differences between how you previously viewed their illness and how you understand their illness given the information from this course.


The purpose of this paper is to discuss a medical illness experienced by a person I am well-acquainted with. This paper will describe the biological illness, its cause, and the psychological and social correlates associated with the disease. Additionally, the perceived stress of the patient and all components of their treatment, including multi-faceted psychological, social, and health behavior interventions, will be explored. Finally, comprehensive treatment recommendations will be provided. This discussion will provide insights into the changes in understanding the illness, comparing how it was previously perceived with the knowledge from this course.

Biological Illness and Cause

The person I am well-acquainted with is suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a progressive lung disease characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The primary cause of COPD is long-term exposure to irritants, particularly cigarette smoke. In this case, the individual has a history of heavy smoking for several decades, leading to the development of COPD. Other risk factors for COPD include exposure to occupational dust and chemicals, air pollution, and genetic predisposition.

Psychological and Social Correlates

COPD has various psychological and social correlates that impact the well-being of the individual. Depression and anxiety are commonly observed in patients with COPD due to the limitations imposed by the disease on their daily activities. The person I am well-acquainted with also experiences feelings of frustration, helplessness, and fear due to the reduced ability to perform physical tasks and the constant struggle for breath. This psychological distress can further exacerbate the symptoms of COPD and reduce the person’s overall quality of life.

Socially, COPD has resulted in several challenges for the individual. Due to the limitations imposed by the disease, they are no longer able to participate in activities they previously enjoyed, such as hiking and playing sports. The person also faces social isolation as they struggle to keep up with friends and family during social gatherings and may require additional support and assistance in their daily activities. COPD has significantly impacted the person’s social interactions and relationships, leading to a sense of alienation and frustration.

Perceived Stress of the Patient

The person I am well-acquainted with experiences a high level of perceived stress due to their COPD. They constantly worry about their ability to breathe and the impact it has on their daily life. The need for medications, regular doctor visits, and the fear of exacerbations adds a significant burden to their daily life. The person often feels overwhelmed and stressed about managing their symptoms and maintaining their overall well-being. This perceived stress can further aggravate the symptoms of COPD and adversely affect their health.

Components of the Patient’s Treatment

The treatment of COPD involves a multi-faceted approach comprising various components. In the case of the person I am well-acquainted with, their treatment plan includes several interventions.

Firstly, the medical treatment includes bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and oxygen therapy to manage symptoms and improve lung function. These medications aim to alleviate breathlessness, reduce exacerbations, and improve overall quality of life. Additionally, vaccines such as influenza and pneumococcal vaccines are recommended to prevent respiratory infections that can worsen COPD symptoms.

Secondly, pulmonary rehabilitation is an essential component of the treatment plan. This program includes exercise training, education, and counseling to improve the person’s ability to perform daily activities, reduce symptoms, and enhance their overall well-being. Pulmonary rehabilitation also provides psychological support to cope with the emotional and psychological impact of COPD.

Thirdly, smoking cessation forms a crucial part of the patient’s treatment. Given the primary cause of their COPD is long-term exposure to cigarette smoke, quitting smoking is vital to slow down the progression of the disease and improve lung function. Smoking cessation interventions, such as counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, and medications, are recommended to aid in the quitting process.

Fourthly, the person is encouraged to optimize their nutrition and maintain a healthy weight. This includes consuming a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains while avoiding excessive salt or sugar intake. Adequate hydration is also emphasized to prevent dehydration and reduce mucus production.

Finally, behavioral and psychological interventions are incorporated to address the psychological distress associated with COPD. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, relaxation techniques, and support groups can help the individual cope with stress, manage anxiety and depression, and improve their overall mental well-being.

Comprehensive Treatment Recommendations

Based on the understanding of the person’s illness and the comprehensive components of their treatment described above, the following recommendations can be made:

1. Encourage the person to strictly adhere to their prescribed medications and medical treatments as directed by their healthcare provider. Compliance with medication regimens is crucial for symptom control and prevention of exacerbations.

2. Support the person in attending pulmonary rehabilitation programs regularly. Encourage active participation and engagement in the exercises, education, and counseling sessions offered during these sessions.

3. Provide resources and support for smoking cessation. Help the person develop a personalized quitting plan and provide access to counseling services, nicotine replacement therapy, and medications, if necessary.

4. Promote a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and adequate hydration. Educate the person about the importance of these lifestyle factors in managing their COPD and achieving an optimal quality of life.

5. Offer emotional support and understanding to help the person cope with the psychological and social challenges of COPD. Encourage their participation in support groups or individual counseling sessions to address anxiety, depression, and stress related to their illness.

Reflecting on Changes in Understanding

Prior to the information gained from this course, my understanding of COPD was limited. I primarily associated it with respiratory symptoms and was unaware of the extensive psychological and social impact it could have on an individual’s life. Learning about the psychological and social correlates of the disease has deepened my understanding of COPD and the challenges faced by those living with it. I now recognize the importance of holistic interventions that address not only the physical symptoms but also the psychological and social aspects of the illness.


This paper has discussed the biological illness of COPD experienced by a person I am well-acquainted with. It has explored the causes of the disease, the psychological and social correlates associated with COPD, the perceived stress of the patient, and the components of their treatment plan. Comprehensive treatment recommendations have been provided, taking into account the multi-faceted nature of COPD. Reflecting on the changes in understanding following the information gained from this course, it is evident that a more comprehensive and holistic approach to COPD management is necessary to improve the overall well-being of individuals with the disease.