Cite the readings and multimedia in the module to support yo…

Cite the readings and multimedia in the module to support your comments. 1.In your own words describe what would happen in your brain from the neurobiological perspective if you were to experience either depression or mania. How might you convey to a client what is happening in their brain when they experience depression or mania? 2.Highlight and summarize at least two insights you have gained from the Preston and Bentley readings and the week’s videos.

Depression and mania are two contrasting states that can affect individuals’ mental health. From a neurobiological perspective, these states are associated with specific changes in brain functioning. In depression, there is a decrease in the activity of certain neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, which regulate mood, motivation, and pleasure (Preston, O’Neal, & Talaga, 2013). This neurotransmitter dysregulation results in decreased connectivity and communication between different brain regions involved in emotion regulation, cognitive processing, and reward processing (Bentley et al., 2015).

According to the Preston and Bentley readings and the week’s videos, depression is characterized by alterations in various brain regions. For instance, the prefrontal cortex, responsible for decision-making and cognition, shows reduced activity and is less able to regulate emotions (Bentley et al., 2015). The amygdala, which processes emotions, is hyperactive and overreacts to negative stimuli, leading to heightened sensitivity to threat and increased feelings of sadness (Preston et al., 2013). Additionally, the hippocampus, involved in memory formation and regulation of the stress response, is adversely affected by chronic stress associated with depression, leading to impairments in its functioning (Bentley et al., 2015).

On the other hand, mania is characterized by an overactivity of the brain’s reward systems and an imbalance in neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine (Preston et al., 2013). This imbalance results in increased connectivity between brain regions implicated in reward processing, emotion regulation, and decision-making (Bentley et al., 2015). The prefrontal cortex, in particular, shows increased activity, leading to heightened goal-directed behavior and impulsivity (Bentley et al., 2015). The amygdala also plays a role in mania, as it demonstrates hyperactivity, contributing to increased emotional intensity and irritability (Preston et al., 2013).

When conveying this information to clients experiencing depression, it is crucial to use a respectful and empathetic approach. It is important to recognize that each individual’s experience may vary and that the neurobiological perspective is just one aspect of understanding depression. Clients may find it helpful to understand that their depressive symptoms are not merely a result of personal weakness or lack of willpower. Instead, it can be explained as an interplay between genetic predisposition, life stressors, and brain functioning (Preston et al., 2013).

To explain the neurobiological changes in depression to clients, it can be helpful to use metaphors or analogies. For example, you can describe a lack of serotonin as a “chemical imbalance” in the brain that affects mood regulation, similar to a car running low on fuel leading to decreased performance. This analogy can simplify complex neurobiological concepts and make them more relatable and understandable for clients (Preston et al., 2013).

In the case of mania, it is important to explain to clients that their heightened energy, impulsivity, and irritability are a result of brain chemistry and neurobiological changes. Clients may find it helpful to understand that their brain’s reward systems are overactive, leading to excessive engagement in pleasurable activities and difficulty controlling impulsive behavior (Preston et al., 2013). Using metaphors such as a “car with the accelerator stuck” or a “firework exploding uncontrollably” can illustrate the experience of mania to clients (Preston et al., 2013).

In summary, from a neurobiological perspective, depression and mania involve specific changes in brain functioning. Depression is associated with decreased neurotransmitter activity, alterations in brain regions involved in emotion regulation, cognitive processing, and reward processing. Mania, on the other hand, is characterized by increased activity in reward systems, neurotransmitter imbalances, and heightened connectivity between brain regions. When conveying this information to clients, it is crucial to be empathetic, respectful, and use metaphors or analogies to simplify complex concepts.