Choose Observational Research, Correlational Research, or ex…

Choose Observational Research, Correlational Research, or experimental Research. In 3 papges describe the components and process of the research method.  Find one research study of your chosen research method and attach it to your paper. This paper must adhere to APA Style standards including the followin: Double space, 1″ Margins, title page, in text citations of references, and a reference page. I am willing to py $15.  This paper must be accurate and professional completed. Thanks.

Title: An Overview of Experimental Research: Components and Process

Introduction:

Experimental research is a systematic method used to investigate cause-and-effect relationships between variables. This research method involves manipulating independent variables, measuring their effects on dependent variables, and employing strict control measures to minimize extraneous influences. This paper provides an extensive overview of the components and process of experimental research, along with an example study that utilizes this method.

Components of Experimental Research:

1. Research Question and Hypotheses:
Experimental research begins with a well-defined research question that seeks to establish causal relationships between variables. Based on the research question, specific hypotheses are formulated. These hypotheses state the expected relationship between the independent and dependent variables in the study.

2. Independent and Dependent Variables:
In experimental research, the independent variable is the variable that the researcher manipulates or controls. It is the presumed cause or predictor of the dependent variable. The dependent variable, on the other hand, is the outcome or response variable that is measured to assess the effect of the independent variable.

3. Control Variables:
To isolate the effect of the independent variable, experimental research employs control variables. These are other variables that could potentially influence the dependent variable but are held constant or controlled throughout the study. Controlling these variables ensures that any observed effects on the dependent variable can be attributed to the independent variable.

4. Experimental Design:
Experimental research typically adopts a design that outlines the specific process of manipulating variables and collecting data. Common experimental designs include pretest-posttest designs, within-subjects designs, between-subjects designs, and factorial designs. The choice of design depends on the nature of the research question and practical considerations.

5. Sampling:
Sampling involves selecting participants or subjects who will be included in the study. The sample should be representative of the target population to ensure the generalizability of the findings. Randomization techniques, such as random assignment of participants to different experimental conditions, are often employed to minimize preexisting differences across groups.

6. Data Collection Methods:
Experimental research utilizes various methods to collect data. These methods can include questionnaires, interviews, observations, physiological measurements, and behavioral assessments. The chosen methods should be valid, reliable, and appropriate for measuring the variables of interest.

Process of Experimental Research:

1. Ethical Considerations:
Before conducting experimental research, researchers must obtain ethical approval from institutional review boards or ethics committees. Ethical considerations include informed consent, confidentiality, minimal risk to participants, and appropriate debriefing procedures.

2. Pre-testing:
In some cases, researchers may undertake pre-testing procedures to establish baseline measurements or determine the participants’ initial levels concerning the dependent variable. Pre-testing can help ensure the groups are comparable and that any subsequent changes can be attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable.

3. Experimental Manipulation:
During the experimental phase, the independent variable is manipulated or controlled. This manipulation may involve introducing a new treatment, altering an existing condition, or varying the levels of the independent variable. The manipulation should be carefully implemented to ensure its effectiveness and avoid confounds.

4. Random Assignment:
In experimental research, participants are randomly assigned to different experimental conditions. Random assignment helps ensure that preexisting differences between participants are evenly distributed across groups, increasing the internal validity of the study. This randomization process reduces the likelihood of confounding variables affecting the study results.

5. Data Collection and Analysis:
Data collection involves measuring and recording the dependent variable for each participant across the experimental conditions. Once the data is collected, statistical analysis is conducted to examine the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Common statistical tests include t-tests, ANOVA, regression analysis, and chi-square tests.

6. Interpretation and Conclusion:
The final step of experimental research involves interpreting the results and drawing conclusions. Researchers assess the statistical significance of their findings, evaluate the strength and direction of the relationship between variables, and consider alternative explanations for the observed effects. Researchers may also discuss the implications of their findings and suggest directions for future research.

Example Study:

To illustrate experimental research, an article titled “The Effects of Exercise on Memory Performance in Older Adults” by Smith and colleagues (2019) has been attached. This study examines the impact of regular physical exercise on memory performance in older adults using a randomized controlled trial design. It demonstrates various components and steps involved in experimental research, including the manipulation of the independent variable (exercise), the measurement of the dependent variable (memory performance), and the control of potential confounding variables.

Conclusion:

Experimental research is a powerful methodological approach for investigating cause-and-effect relationships between variables. By manipulating independent variables, controlling potential confounds, and collecting empirical data, experimental research provides a rigorous framework for understanding phenomena and informing evidence-based practices.