Chapter #131. Explain the terms Computationalism and Cultura…

Chapter #13 1. Explain the terms Computationalism and CulturalismĀ and their effects on Learning 2. Explain Ā the implications of Pedagogy and Social practices in the development of adult learners Chapter #15 3. According to ZieheĀ (2018), what are some normalĀ Learning problems in youth. Name and explain at least 3 Chapters #16 and #17 4. Describe the four components of the SocialĀ Theory of Learning 5.Explain the Psychological theories: a. Behaviorist b. Cognitive

Chapter #13

1. Computationalism and Culturalism: Effects on Learning
Computationalism is a theoretical perspective that posits the mind as a computational system. It suggests that human cognition and learning can be understood through the application of computational models and algorithms. According to this perspective, learning is seen as a process of acquiring and manipulating information in a systematic and algorithmic manner. Computationalism emphasizes the importance of information processing, encoding, and storing in understanding how learning occurs.

On the other hand, culturalism is a theoretical perspective that emphasizes the role of culture in shaping cognition and learning. It argues that learning is a social and cultural phenomenon, heavily influenced by the cultural context in which it takes place. Culturalists believe that learning is not solely a matter of individual cognitive processes, but is instead shaped by social interactions, norms, values, and beliefs.

The effects of computationalism on learning can be seen in the development of instructional technologies and computer-based learning environments. Computational models and algorithms are used to design and implement educational software, intelligent tutoring systems, and adaptive learning platforms. These computational tools aim to enhance learning by providing personalized instruction, immediate feedback, and tailored learning experiences.

On the other hand, culturalism highlights the importance of social and cultural factors in learning. It emphasizes the role of cultural values, practices, and norms in shaping how individuals learn. Culturalists argue that learning cannot be understood in isolation from the broader social and cultural contexts in which it occurs. As a result, they advocate for culturally responsive pedagogies and instructional practices that take into account the diverse cultural backgrounds and experiences of learners.

2. Pedagogy and Social Practices: Implications for Adult Learners
Pedagogy refers to the theory and practice of teaching. It encompasses the instructional strategies, methods, and techniques used to facilitate learning. In the context of adult learners, pedagogy needs to be tailored to their specific needs, interests, and goals. Adult learners have different motivations, prior knowledge, and life experiences, which necessitate instructional approaches that are flexible, learner-centered, and relevant to their current contexts.

Social practices, on the other hand, refer to the shared activities, behaviors, and routines that occur within social groups. In the context of adult learning, social practices play a crucial role in shaping the learning experiences and outcomes of individuals. Adult learners often engage in learning within social contexts such as classrooms, workplaces, or communities. The social interactions, collaborations, and networks that emerge in these contexts can significantly impact how adult learners acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

The implications of pedagogy and social practices for adult learners are multifaceted. Effective pedagogical approaches for adult learners should take into account their prior experiences, goals, and motivations. Instructional strategies should be designed to promote active engagement, critical thinking, and problem-solving. Additionally, adult learners often benefit from opportunities for self-directed learning, reflection, and experiential learning. The use of technology and online platforms can also enhance the accessibility and flexibility of adult learning.

In terms of social practices, adult learners can benefit from collaborative and participatory learning environments. Peer learning, mentoring, and community-based learning experiences can foster social connections, collective knowledge construction, and mutual support among adult learners. The recognition and validation of prior learning experiences and skills are also important in acknowledging the diverse backgrounds and expertise of adult learners. Overall, pedagogy and social practices need to be aligned to create inclusive, supportive, and empowering learning environments for adult learners.

Chapter #15

3. Normal Learning Problems in Youth, according to Ziehe (2018)
In his book, Ziehe (2018) discusses several normal learning problems that youth commonly encounter during their development. Three of these problems are discussed below:

a. Identity Formation: Adolescence is a period of intense identity formation, where young individuals undergo significant changes physically, cognitively, and socially. This developmental stage is characterized by the exploration and experimentation of various roles, values, beliefs, and relationships. Youth often struggle with questions about their self-identity, purpose, and belonging, which can lead to confusion, uncertainty, and identity crises.

b. Peer Pressure and Conformity: During adolescence, peer relationships and social interactions become increasingly important. Youth often experience peer pressure to conform to group norms, values, and behaviors. This can lead to conflicts between the desire for acceptance and the need for personal autonomy and individuality. Youth may struggle with balancing their own values and desires with the influence of their peers.

c. Academic Stress and Expectations: Adolescence is a critical period for educational development, with increasing academic demands and expectations. Youth may experience stress, anxiety, and fear of failure related to academic performance. The pressure to excel, achieve high grades, and meet societal expectations can sometimes lead to psychological distress and undermine their motivation and engagement in learning.

These normal learning problems are part of the developmental challenges that youth typically face. While they can cause temporary difficulties, they are considered normative and can provide opportunities for personal growth, self-discovery, and the development of resilience and coping strategies.