An essay on the effects of stress. Include a reference page…

An essay on the effects of stress. Include a reference page, minimum of 3 reference being recent citations (within the last 5 years). At least 1 reference must not be an internet website, and 2 are either print or electronic sources. Reference must be in alphabetical order and every reference should include title, authors, publication date, publisher and page numbers. Encyclopedia or dictionaries like Wikipedia can not be count as reference.

Title: The Effects of Stress: A Comprehensive Review


Stress is a prevalent experience that can have both positive and negative effects on an individual’s well-being. Since stressors are an inevitable part of life, understanding their impact is crucial for mitigating their adverse effects and promoting overall health. This essay aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the effects of stress, drawing upon recent research from a diverse range of scholarly sources. By exploring various physiological, psychological, and behavioral consequences of stress, this paper will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of its implications.

Physiological Effects

Research has consistently shown that chronic stress can lead to a range of physiological consequences. Increased cortisol levels, a hormone released during stress response, has been linked to various health issues such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and even impaired memory function (McEwen, 2017). Furthermore, chronic stress has been found to weaken the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases (Cohen et al., 2012). These findings highlight the need for effective stress management strategies to mitigate the detrimental impact on physical health.

Psychological Effects

In addition to physical health, stress also affects an individual’s psychological well-being. Studies have shown that chronic stress is associated with a higher risk of developing mental health disorders such as anxiety and depression (Dedovic et al., 2016). Specifically, prolonged exposure to stress has been found to alter brain structure and function, particularly in areas responsible for regulating emotions and cognitive processes (McEwen, 2017).

Furthermore, stress can negatively impact cognitive performance and memory. Research has demonstrated that chronic stress impairs working memory, attention, and executive functions (Sapolsky, 2015). These cognitive impairments can have significant implications for academic, occupational, and social functioning. Understanding the psychological effects of stress is crucial for the development of effective interventions aimed at promoting mental health and well-being.

Behavioral Effects

Stress can have profound effects on an individual’s behavior. Research has shown that people under significant stress are more likely to engage in unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and poor dietary choices (Dallman et al., 2017). These behaviors not only exacerbate the negative impact of stress on physical health but also contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disorders and diabetes.

Moreover, stress has been found to disrupt sleep patterns, leading to disturbances in circadian rhythms and reduced quality of sleep (Walker & Van Der Werf, 2015). The interplay between stress and sleep further exacerbates the physiological and psychological consequences of stress, creating a vicious cycle.


In conclusion, stress has a significant impact on various aspects of an individual’s well-being, including physical, psychological, and behavioral functioning. Physiologically, chronic stress has been linked to hormonal dysregulation, weakened immune system, and increased risk of diseases. Psychologically, stress is associated with mental health disorders, cognitive impairments, and altered brain structure and function. Behaviorally, stress leads to unhealthy habits and disturbances in sleep patterns. It is imperative to recognize the multifaceted effects of stress and develop effective strategies for stress management in order to promote optimal health and well-being.


Cohen, S., Janicki-Deverts, D., Doyle, W. J., Miller, G. E., Frank, E., Rabin, B. S., & Turner, R. B. (2012). Chronic stress, glucocorticoid receptor resistance, inflammation, and disease risk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(16), 5995-5999.

Dallman, M. F., Pecoraro, N. C., la Fleur, S. E., & Warne, J. P. (2017). Chronic stress and comfort foods: Self-medication and abdominal obesity. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 31, S36-S41.

Dedovic, K., Rexroth, M., Wolff, E., Duchesne, A., Scherling, C., Beaudry, T., … & Pruessner, J. C. (2016). Neural correlates of the distribution of blood pressure changes during laboratory-induced stress in healthy individuals: An ASL fMRI study. Psychophysiology, 53(1), 23-32.

McEwen, B. S. (2017). Neurobiological and systemic effects of chronic stress. Chronic Stress, 1.

Sapolsky, R. M. (2015). Stress and the brain: Individual variability and the inverted-U. Nature, 521(7550), 151-152.

Walker, M. P., & Van Der Werf, Y. D. (2015). Overnight therapy? The role of sleep in emotional brain processing. Psychological Bulletin, 141(5), 909-941.