According to Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004) there are a number of different strategies that can be used when conducting mixed-method research. What are those different strategies? How does one go about choosing among those different strategies? What factors are important to consider when deciding which strategy to use? Johnson, R. B., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Mixed Methods Research: A research paradigm whose time has come, 33(7), 14-26. Purchase the answer to view it
Mixed-method research is a research approach that involves collecting and analyzing both quantitative and qualitative data in the same study. Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004) propose several different strategies for conducting mixed-method research. These strategies are based on the purpose of the study, research questions, and the specific needs and preferences of the researcher. The choice of strategy depends on a variety of factors that need to be considered.
One of the strategies proposed by Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004) is the convergent design, in which both qualitative and quantitative data are collected concurrently and analyzed separately. The results of the analysis are then compared and integrated to provide a comprehensive understanding of the research topic. This design is appropriate when the researcher wants to validate or triangulate findings.
Another strategy is the explanatory design, which involves collecting quantitative data first, followed by qualitative data. The purpose of this design is to use qualitative data to explain or elaborate on quantitative findings. This design is suitable when the researcher wants to explore the reasons behind numerical trends or relationships.
The exploratory design is another strategy proposed by Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004). In this design, qualitative data is collected first, followed by quantitative data. The purpose of this design is to use qualitative data to generate hypotheses or explore possible relationships that can be further tested using quantitative methods. This design is appropriate when the research topic is relatively unexplored and warrants a more in-depth exploration.
The embedded design is another strategy that involves collecting and analyzing both qualitative and quantitative data, but with one method embedded within the other. For example, qualitative data may be embedded within a larger quantitative survey, or vice versa. This design is appropriate when the researcher wants to provide rich qualitative data within a larger quantitative study, or when the researcher wants to supplement qualitative findings with quantitative data.
The transformative design is a strategy proposed by Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004) that involves using mixed-method research to bring about social change or transformation. This design is characterized by an emphasis on participant empowerment and the inclusion of marginalized voices. This design is suitable for researchers who want to use their research to advocate for social justice or bring about practical change.
Choosing among these different strategies should be based on a careful consideration of several important factors. One important factor to consider is the research question. Different research questions may require different strategies. For example, a research question that seeks to explore the experiences and perceptions of participants may be better suited for an exploratory or embedded design, while a research question that aims to validate or test hypotheses may be better suited for a convergent or explanatory design.
Another factor to consider is the availability of resources and time constraints. Certain designs may require more time, effort, and resources to implement than others. Researchers should consider their available resources and the feasibility of implementing different strategies within the given timeframe.
The context and nature of the research topic should also be considered. Some research topics may lend themselves better to certain designs. For example, a topic that involves complex social interactions and processes may benefit from an embedded design that allows for a deep exploration of these complexities.
Finally, the researcher’s preference and expertise should be taken into account. Researchers should choose a strategy that aligns with their own skills, knowledge, and interests. It is important to choose a strategy that the researcher feels comfortable with and is confident in implementing effectively.
In conclusion, there are several different strategies for conducting mixed-method research, including convergent, explanatory, exploratory, embedded, and transformative designs. The choice of strategy depends on factors such as the research question, available resources, the context of the research topic, and the researcher’s preference and expertise. Researchers should carefully consider these factors when deciding which strategy to use in order to ensure that their research is rigorous, comprehensive, and aligned with their research goals.