a 1,400- to 1,750-word paper that examines the influences o…

a 1,400- to 1,750-word paper that examines the influences of traits—such as trait theory—and biology—such as temperament—on personality development. Answer the following questions in your paper: an explanation of how the following personality models may be adapted to account for variation in the personal, societal, and cultural factors discussed in your paper: your paper consistent with APA guidelines. I HAVE STARTED ON THE PAPER JUST NEED SOME HELP TO FINISH IT.

Title: The Influences of Traits and Biology on Personality Development


Personality development is a complex process influenced by a variety of factors, including traits and biology. This paper aims to examine the influences of traits and biology on personality development and explores how personality models can account for variation in personal, societal, and cultural factors. Specifically, this paper will discuss trait theory and temperament as two key aspects of personality development.

Trait Theory and Personality Development

Trait theory proposes that personality consists of stable and enduring traits that individuals possess. These traits contribute to how individuals think, feel, and behave across different situations (Costa & McCrae, 1992). To better understand personality development, trait theorists have identified several key traits, including the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience.

The FFM provides a comprehensive framework for understanding trait variation and its impact on personality development. However, to account for the complex interplay of personal, societal, and cultural factors, it is important to adapt this model.

Variation in personal factors is inherent in the FFM, as individuals exhibit different levels of each trait. Nonetheless, societal and cultural influences also shape personality development. For instance, cultural norms and values determine acceptable behavior and expressions of personality, impacting the development and expression of traits. Thus, a culturally adapted FFM could consider variations in trait manifestation across different cultural contexts.

Societal factors, such as socioeconomic status and educational opportunities, also influence personality development. Individuals from different social backgrounds may have distinct experiences, opportunities, and constraints, which can shape their personality traits. An adapted FFM could incorporate these societal factors to enhance its explanatory power.

Additionally, the FFM may require adaptation to account for the impact of cultural factors on personality development. Cultural practices, beliefs, and values influence the cultivation of specific traits in individuals. For example, collectivist cultures may prioritize traits such as cooperation and interdependence, while individualistic cultures may emphasize independence and self-expression. Integrating cultural factors into the FFM could help explain cross-cultural variations in personality development.

Temperament and Personality Development

Temperament refers to individual differences in emotional reactivity and self-regulation, which emerge early in life and establish the foundation for personality development (Rothbart & Bates, 2006). Research suggests that temperament, often considered biologically-based, interacts with environmental factors to shape personality.

Temperament can be characterized by various dimensions, including activity level, emotionality, sociability, and attentional control. These dimensions provide insight into how individuals experience and regulate their emotions, behaviors, and social interactions.

During childhood, temperament acts as a precursor to personality development. For example, children with high levels of sociability may develop extraverted personalities, while those with greater emotional reactivity may exhibit neuroticism in adulthood. Understanding how temperament influences the development of specific traits is crucial in explaining individual differences in personality.

In accounting for the influences of personal, societal, and cultural factors, adaptations to the temperament model can enhance its explanatory power. Personal factors such as genetic predispositions and early life experiences interact with temperament to shape personality. Environmental factors, such as parenting styles and cultural practices, can influence the expression and development of temperament-related traits.

The inclusion of societal factors in the temperament model would help explain how unique social structures and expectations influence the development of certain temperamental traits. For example, in collectivist societies that prioritize conformity and social harmony, individuals with high levels of attentional control may be valued more than those with high activity levels.

Adapting the temperament model to account for cultural factors would entail considering how cultural practices and values influence the expression and acceptance of certain temperamental traits. For instance, cultures that value emotional restraint may shape individuals with high levels of emotionality in a manner different from cultures that promote emotional expressiveness.


Personality development is a multifaceted process influenced by traits and biology. Understanding how traits and temperament interact with personal, societal, and cultural factors enhances our understanding of individual differences in personality development. Adaptations to personality models like the FFM and temperament model can provide a more comprehensive framework for explaining variation across these factors. Recognizing these influences is valuable for clinicians, educators, and researchers seeking to understand and support individuals in their personality development.