1. Titchener draws parallels between psychology and biology – to what effect? 2. What does Titchener consider to be the task of experimental psychology? 3. Titchener maintains that psychologists agree as to the two elementary parts of mental life. What are they? How are they defined, and how do they differ? PLEASE DO NOT CITE. Just put the answer under each question and please do not write a paper
1. Titchener draws parallels between psychology and biology in order to argue for the scientific nature of psychology and establish it as a legitimate scientific discipline. He believed that just like biology, psychology should aim to study the structure and function of mental processes using rigorous scientific methods. By making these parallels, Titchener hoped to emphasize the importance of objectivity, experimentation, and systematic observation in psychology, similar to how these principles were central to the development of biological sciences.
2. Titchener considers the task of experimental psychology to be the analysis of conscious experiences into their basic elements or component parts. He believed that through introspection, individuals could observe and report on their own subjective experiences, which could then be examined and analyzed in a controlled laboratory setting. By breaking down these complex experiences into their elemental components, experimental psychologists could better understand the underlying structure and processes of the mind.
3. Titchener maintains that psychologists agree on two elementary parts of mental life, which he referred to as sensations and images.
Sensations are the elementary experiences that arise from stimuli in the external world. They are the basic building blocks of perception and involve the detection and processing of sensory information through the five senses (sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell). Titchener defines sensations as the immediate, direct, and uninterpreted experiences that occur when a stimulus activates a sensory organ. For example, when we see a red apple, the sensation is the immediate experience of perceiving the color red.
Images, on the other hand, are the mental representations or reproductions of past sensory experiences. They are not the direct result of external stimuli, but rather the result of internal mental processes such as memory or imagination. Images can involve the recall of visual, auditory, or other sensory experiences, and they can be subjective or vivid. For instance, when we mentally visualize an apple, the image is the mental representation of the apple in our mind.
While sensations and images share similarities, Titchener highlights their differences. Sensations are considered to be more objective and passive experiences, as they directly result from external stimuli and do not involve conscious manipulation. Images, on the other hand, are subjective and involve a more active mental process of recreating or reconstructing past sensory experiences. They can be influenced by personal biases, memories, and imagination.
In summary, Titchener argues that experimental psychology should focus on the analysis of conscious experiences by breaking them down into their elemental components. He draws parallels between psychology and biology to emphasize the scientific nature of the discipline. Titchener asserts that psychologists agree on the existence of two elementary parts of mental life: sensations, which are immediate and direct experiences resulting from external stimuli, and images, which are mental representations or reproductions of past sensory experiences. Sensations are objective and passive, while images are subjective and involve active mental processes.