1. Explain the terms Computationalism and Culturalism and th…

1. Explain the terms Computationalism and Culturalism and their effects on Learning 2. Explain  the implications of Pedagogy and Social practices in the development of adult learners 3. According to Ziehe (2018), what are some normal Learning problems in youth. Name and explain at least 3 4. Describe the four components of the Social Theory of Learning 5.Explain the Psychological theories: a. Behaviorist b. Cognitive d. Social Learning In APA style

1. Computationalism and Culturalism are two theoretical perspectives that have significant implications for learning. Computationalism refers to the view that the mind can be understood as an information processor, similar to a computer. It posits that learning can be understood as the acquisition and processing of information, and that the brain operates based on algorithms and computations. This perspective emphasizes the role of cognition, memory, attention, and problem-solving in the learning process.

The effects of computationalism on learning are manifold. First, computationalism highlights the importance of instructional designs that facilitate information processing. For example, the use of diagrams, models, and simulations can help learners better organize and process information. Furthermore, computationalism emphasizes the role of practice and repetition in learning, suggesting that repeated exposure to stimuli can strengthen neural connections and improve learning outcomes.

On the other hand, culturalism emphasizes the role of culture in shaping the learning process. According to culturalism, learning is heavily influenced by the cultural context in which it takes place. This perspective highlights the importance of social interaction, language, and cultural practices in learning. Culturalist approaches often emphasize the role of situated learning, where learners engage in authentic, real-world tasks within a specific cultural context.

The effects of culturalism on learning are also significant. Culturalism highlights the importance of creating culturally relevant and meaningful learning experiences. This means that educators should consider the cultural backgrounds, experiences, and perspectives of their learners when designing instruction. For example, incorporating culturally diverse materials and perspectives can enhance learners’ engagement and motivation. Furthermore, culturalism emphasizes the role of social interaction, collaboration, and community in the learning process, suggesting that learning is not solely an individual endeavor but a socially mediated process.

2. Pedagogy refers to the methods and approaches used in teaching, while social practices refer to the broader cultural and societal norms and values that shape learning and education. Both pedagogy and social practices have significant implications in the development of adult learners.

With regards to pedagogy, adult learners have distinct needs and characteristics that need to be considered. Unlike children, adult learners often have prior knowledge and experiences that can be tapped into and built upon. Effective pedagogy for adult learners should be learner-centered, allowing them to actively engage with the material and relate it to their own experiences. Additionally, adult learners often have specific goals and motivations for learning, which should be taken into account when designing instruction. For example, adult learners may be more motivated by practical applications and real-world relevance of the material.

Social practices also play a crucial role in the development of adult learners. Adult learning is influenced by the broader societal and cultural norms, values, and expectations. For example, cultural expectations around gender roles, social class, and race can shape the access and opportunities for adult learners. Social practices can either facilitate or hinder adult learning depending on the cultural context. Additionally, the social aspect of learning is particularly important for adult learners, as they often benefit from peer support, collaborative learning environments, and opportunities for networking and social engagement.

In summary, pedagogy and social practices have significant implications for the development of adult learners. Effective pedagogy for adults should be learner-centered and take into account their prior knowledge, experiences, goals, and motivations. Additionally, the broader societal and cultural norms and values impact the opportunities and access for adult learners, as well as the social support and engagement they receive.

3. Ziehe (2018) identifies several common learning problems in youth. Three of these problems are academic performance and motivation, social and emotional difficulties, and identity formation.

Academic performance and motivation can be a significant challenge for many young learners. Factors such as lack of interest, low self-esteem, peer pressure, and ineffective teaching methods can contribute to poor academic performance. Additionally, external factors such as family dynamics, socioeconomic status, and access to resources can also impact students’ motivation and academic achievement.

Social and emotional difficulties are also common learning problems in youth. Adolescence is a time of significant emotional and social changes, and many young people struggle to navigate these challenges. Issues such as peer pressure, bullying, social anxiety, and mental health problems can have a detrimental impact on young learners’ well-being and ability to focus on their education.

Identity formation is another common learning problem in youth. During adolescence, young people are exploring their sense of self and establishing their identities. This process can be challenging, as young learners may face pressure to conform to societal expectations or struggle with issues of self-acceptance. This internal struggle can distract from their academic pursuits and impact their overall well-being.

These three learning problems highlight the complex interplay between cognitive, emotional, and social factors in youth development and learning. Understanding and addressing these issues requires a holistic approach that takes into account the multifaceted nature of adolescent development.