1. Drawing on laboratory research conducted by Berkiwitz, Phillips tested the “modeling of aggression” hypothesis. What did Phillips’ data indicate? 2. In general, how successful are obvious attempts to persuade? Summarize one piece of research that supports the notions that direct efforts to persuade are effective, and one that indicated that such direct efforts are relatively ineffective. Each questions must be answer in 150 words or more.
1. Phillips conducted a study to explore the “modeling of aggression” hypothesis, building upon previous laboratory research by Berkiwitz. The hypothesis suggests that exposure to aggressive behavior models can lead individuals to imitate and display aggressive behavior themselves. In Phillips’ study, participants were exposed to aggressive models through a film. The data collected indicated that the participants who were exposed to aggressive models were more likely to display aggression themselves compared to participants who were not exposed to these models. This finding supported the “modeling of aggression” hypothesis and provided empirical evidence for the role of observational learning in shaping aggressive behavior.
Furthermore, Phillips found that the level of aggression displayed by participants varied based on the characteristics of the model. When the model was rewarded for their aggressive behavior, the participants were more likely to imitate and display aggression. Conversely, when the model faced negative consequences or punishment for their aggressive behavior, the participants were less likely to imitate and show aggression. This finding suggests that not only does observation of aggressive behavior influence individuals, but the consequences associated with that behavior also play a significant role in determining their likelihood to imitate it.
2. The effectiveness of direct efforts to persuade individuals can vary depending on various factors. One piece of research supporting the notion of the effectiveness of direct persuasion is the study conducted by Cialdini et al. (1974). They investigated the impact of explicit requests on compliance in a field experiment. The researchers found that using direct and explicit language in making a request significantly increased compliance rates compared to more subtle or indirect requests. This study suggests that direct efforts to persuade can be effective in influencing individuals’ behaviors and decisions.
On the other hand, research conducted by Burger (1999) indicates that direct efforts to persuade may not always be as effective as one might assume. Burger examined the effectiveness of persuasive appeals based on the concept of attitude inoculation. Attitude inoculation involves exposing individuals to weak or opposing arguments, which prepares them to counteract stronger persuasive attempts. In Burger’s study, participants who received weak counterarguments exhibited greater resistance to subsequent persuasive attempts, indicating that direct efforts to persuade can be relatively ineffective if individuals are forewarned or prepared with counterarguments.
In summary, direct efforts to persuade individuals can be successful depending on various factors such as the clarity and explicitness of the persuasive message. The research conducted by Cialdini et al. (1974) suggests that using direct language in requests can significantly increase compliance rates. However, the study by Burger (1999) indicates that direct persuasion can be relatively ineffective if individuals have been exposed to weak or opposing arguments. These findings highlight the importance of considering contextual factors and potential counterarguments when determining the effectiveness of direct persuasion.