1. 9-month old Jessica searches for a familiar toy that was taken away and hidden in front of her, which means she understands the concept of _______________ 2. 3-year old Sean begins saying grammatically incorrect sentences such as “I want mores” and “Daddy comed home.” This is known as ______________ 3. 5-year old Jeremy imitates an act of aggression after watching his favorite TV show. This is an example of learning via _______________ (answer all three).
1. 9-month old Jessica searching for a familiar toy that was taken away and hidden in front of her demonstrates her understanding of object permanence. Object permanence refers to the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible or present in the immediate environment. In Jessica’s case, she is able to search for and find the toy even though it is no longer visible to her.
2. The grammatically incorrect sentences spoken by 3-year old Sean, such as “I want mores” and “Daddy comed home,” are examples of overgeneralization. Overgeneralization occurs when young children apply grammar rules in a simplified and sometimes incorrect manner. In this case, Sean is applying the rule of adding “-s” to indicate plural (e.g., “mores” instead of “more”) and using past tense irregularly (e.g., “comed” instead of “came”). This is a normal stage of language development that typically resolves as children become more proficient in grammar.
3. 5-year old Jeremy imitating an act of aggression after watching his favorite TV show is an example of observational learning. Observational learning, also known as social learning or vicarious learning, refers to the process of learning by observing others’ behaviors and their consequences. In this case, Jeremy observed an act of aggression on television and replicated it, indicating that he has learned the behavior through observation. This form of learning is influenced by factors such as attention, memory, and motivation.
Overall, these three examples highlight different aspects of cognitive and social development in young children. Jessica’s understanding of object permanence demonstrates cognitive growth in her ability to mentally represent and search for hidden objects. Sean’s overgeneralization in language use reflects the ongoing development of grammar skills. Jeremy’s imitation of aggression highlights the role of observational learning and the influence of media on children’s behavior. Understanding these concepts contributes to our knowledge of child development and the various processes and milestones involved in their cognitive and social growth.